Bauhaus Art Movement
Bauhaus Art Movement is known as the design of modernization. It refers to the ongoing economic, cultural and social modernization in Europe since 1850. The Bauhaus School of Art was first established in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius in Weimar, Germany. During its fourteen years of operation, Bauhaus has seen itself as part of the innovative movement. Along with it, many changes have occurred in architectural structures. According to the Bauhaus; art, architecture and painting are inseparable parts of each other.
Although it was short-lived, the Bauhaus still managed to become a school. It has survived through three stages in three cities of Germany, namely Weimar, Dessau and Berlin, and has remained popular until today.
Walter Gropius' Bauhaus Manifesto
Walter Gropius said in his Bauhaus manifesto he wrote in 1919: “Art should no longer be a luxury of a certain group, but should appeal to large masses and be experienced by the public. The goal is to unite all branches of art under the wings of the new architecture.”
Bauhaus in Graphic Design
One of the Bauhaus masters, László Moholy-Nagy, created a synthesis of typography and photography. Herbert Bayer was a typography master at the Institute and was the designer of the Bauhaus typeface called Universal. The simplicity of this font was in line with the Institute's wishes. The most popular typeface was the complex and decorative Fraktur, while the Universal typeface was very clean and simple in comparison. The move from the hard-to-read Fraktur font to the Universal font has made design more accessible and also broadened the scope of flexible and creative designs.
Why Was the Bauhaus School Closed?
The Bauhaus School was operating in an oppressive period. After the rise of the National Socialists, who virtually closed the school for their "corrupt" ideas, many members of the Bauhaus traveled to other European countries and the United States to pursue their studies independently. Founded in Chicago in 1937, the "New Bauhaus School" was later renamed the Illinois Institute of Design and is still available today. Thus, we can say that the effects of Bauhaus, one of the most important art movements of the 20th century, continue to shape today's understanding of art.